The adrenal glands, located above the kidneys, are responsible for producing hormones such as cortisol and aldosterone, which help the body handle stress and fight illnesses. The adrenal disease occurs when the adrenal glands fail to produce enough hormones. This is treated by medication that restores hormones to the correct levels. Symptoms of the adrenal disease include:
Calcium is found throughout the body, and it works to strengthen teeth and bones, signal cell processes, aid in muscle contraction, and more. Calcium disorders occur when the body has too little or too much calcium. A deficit of calcium is called hypocalcemia, which occurs at the failure of parathyroid, a gland located near the thyroids that regulate calcium levels by secreting parathyroid hormones. A surplus of the parathyroid hormone, as well as a malignant tumor in the body or excessive vitamin D, can lead to hypercalcemia, which also alters the correct amount of calcium. Symptoms of these disorders include:
Mild cases may exhibit none of these symptoms, while severe cases may cause an irregular heartbeat, muscle spasms, and severe low blood pressure. These disorders are treated by adjusting calcium intake, whether through the diet or through intravenous injections.
Cushing's Syndrome occurs when the levels of cortisol in the body are too high. Cortisol is a hormone that regulates blood pressure, insulin levels, and responses to stress. Cushing's Syndrome can be caused by extended exposure to corticosteroid medication or by a tumor. It causes weight gain in the upper body and softening and rounding of the face. Other symptoms include easy bruising, headaches, and fatigue. Depending on the cause, it is treated by adjusting medicine intake or removing a tumor. Medication adjustment should not be undertaken alone; ask your healthcare provider for help.
Diabetes is a disease that causes consistently high blood sugar because the body fails to process or produce insulin. Insulin enables the body to use or store energy from food. There is three type of diabetes:
Type 1 Diabetes requires regular administration of insulin and careful regulation of blood sugar through eating and exercise.
Type 2 Diabetes is the most common - 90% of diabetes patients have Type 2- and it is treated with adjustments to diet, exercise, and, in some cases, oral medication.
Gestational Diabetes occurs when women have high blood glucose levels during pregnancy. Though gestational diabetes sometimes requires medication or insulin treatments, it is often treated with lifestyle changes and careful monitoring.
Osteoporosis is a disease where bones tend to break easily because of a decreased bond mass index. As people age, their bones lose density faster than they create it. This process can be sped up by using tobacco, being sedentary, or drinking too much alcohol. Though osteoporosis is often not noticed until a bone is broken, it is sometimes recognized by loss of height, back pain, or stooped posture. Treatments include exercising muscles, which increases bone mass density and, in some cases, medication or fall prevention protectors.
The parathyroid glands, located behind the thyroid glands, are responsible for regulating the body's calcium levels. Calcium strengthens the bones, aids in muscle contraction, helps electrical conduction in the heart, and more. This disease occurs when the parathyroid hormone disrupts the levels of calcium in the body by producing too much or too little of the hormone. Hyperparathyroidism occurs when there is too much of the hormone and is often treated by surgical removal of the glands. Hypoparathyroidism is a deficiency of parathyroid hormones. Its symptoms include muscle cramps and spasms, and the condition is treated with vitamin D and calcium supplements.
Thyroid cancer is when the thyroids—glands located in the lower neck—develop malignant cancer. Most thyroid cancers respond well to treatment—a typical treatment includes surgery to remove the thyroid, radiation, and a hormone pill, each a few weeks apart from each other. If not treated, however, thyroid cancer can spread to the rest of the body. Symptoms include difficulty swallowing, swollen lymph nodes, and a lump in the lower neck that can be felt through the skin.
The thyroids, small glands located in the lower neck, can have a range of disorders. One of these is Graves’ disease, which occurs when the immune system mistakenly attacks the thyroids, causing them to overproduce metabolism-regulating hormones. Hashimoto’s disease is when the immune system attacks the thyroids and destroys them. These diseases are treated with hormone pills and, in severe cases, surgery to remove the thyroid glands. Women may deal with specific thyroid issues, such as hypothyroidism during pregnancy (when the thyroids produce low amounts of hormones) or postpartum thyroiditis (when the thyroids are overactive after pregnancy).